National Education Policy 2020
India’s new National Education Policy (Bharat) 2020 (नई शिक्षा नीति NEP 2020), that was approved by the Indian Union Cabinet on 29 July 2020 outlining the vision of a new education system for 21st century’s new India. The new policy substitutes the previous National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986. This new national education policy aims to develop a complete framework for elementary education through higher education, as well as vocational training, in both rural and urban India, by 2040, resulting in a fundamental reform in India’s educational system.
Background of a National Education Policy
A new National Education Policy for India was initially first felt by the Government of India in 1964 under the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, however, the bill was finally passed by the Parliament in 1968 after discussing and taking suggestions from an Education Commission consisting of seventeen (17) member.
In 1968, then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi proposed the First National Policy on Education (NPE).
- This policy encouraged equal educational opportunities to all citizens of India through mandating education for all children up to 14 years of age, specialised training of teachers. The learning of regional languages was also propagated in the policy.
In 1986, then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi proposed the Second National Policy on Education (NPE).
- This policy further extended the vision of equal educational opportunities to all citizens of India by giving special attention to Indian women and backward classes. The new policy was promoted by increasing scholarships, incentives for needy families, recruitment of new teachers, etc.
- This policy encouraged to deliver a child-centric approach and started operation blackboard in a view to improving primary education.
- The Open University System was also encouraged under this policy.
In 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi proposed the Third National Education Policy (NEP).
The Indian cabinet has adopted a new National Education Policy to revamp the country’s future educational system. The policies primarily focus on enhancing analysis-based learning in children. The modification of the curriculum and altering the education structure to 5+3+3+4 with 12 years of schooling and 3 years of Preschool or Anganwadi from the current 10+2 to optimise learning among kids depending on their cognitive development are the highlights of the new National Education Policy 2020.
Vision of the new National Education Policy
By delivering high-quality education to all sectors of the population, India’s new National Education Policy aspires to build an education based on an India-centric education that contributes directly to changing our nation sustainably into an equitable and thriving knowledge-based society.
Committee of the new National Education Policy
A new education policy is reviewed by the Government of India every few decades. This one has taken the place of the education policy of 1986, which had been in force for 34 years. This one has replaced the education policy of 1986, which had been in force for 34 years.
The Indian Union’s Ministry of Education convened a twelve-member group to establish a new school, early childhood, teacher and adult education curriculum. The panel was given the task of developing four national curricular frameworks (NCFs).
The main committee consists of the following members:
- K Kasturirangan, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)[Former Chief]
- Mahesh Chandra Pant, National Institute of Education Planning and Administration of India [Chancellor]
- Govind Prasad Sharma, National Book Trust of India [Chairman]
- Najma Akhtar, Jamia Millia Islamia University [Vice Chancellor]
- T V Kattimani, Central Tribal University of Andhra Pradesh [Vice Chancellor]
- Milind Kamble, IIM Jammu [Chairperson]
- Michel Danino, IIT Gandhinagar [Guest Professor]
- Jagbir Singh, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda [Chancellor]
- Manjul Bhargava, American mathematician of Indian origin
- M K Sridhar, a trainer and a renowned social activist
- Dhir Jhingran, founder-director of Language and Learning Foundation (LLF)
- Shankar Maruwada, co-founder and CEO at EkStep Foundation
Besides the above members, it received suggestions from a number of public consultations, gram panchayats (2.5 lakh), blocks (6000), and urban local bodies (676 districts).
New National Education Policy’s (NEP) initial version was introduced in 2019 but it gained rapid appreciation as well as intense criticism. Soon the proposal to make the Hindi language one of the major indispensable languages was rejected. Then the original draft was put into the public domain and suggestions were invited from all sections of people and all stakeholders regarding the policy. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has received millions of suggestions and the draft NEP has been amended as per suggestions accordingly.
The new national education policy committee will establish four (04) NCFs for school education, early childhood care and education, middle childhood education, higher education, teacher education, and adult education, according to its revised terms of reference. This strategy is being implemented in accordance with the focus of the NEP-2020 recommendations for a new India of the future, which is all connected to these four areas for proposing curricular improvements.
According to India’s new National Education Policy 2020, the primary medium of teaching would be native/mother tongue or local language until Class 5, with the option of continuing until Class 8 and beyond. Sanskrit and other foreign languages will also be given priority. The new National Education Policy (NEP 2020) also mentioned that under the new system, all students must learn at least three (03) languages in their school. At least two of the three languages should be our own native language of India. It also states that no language of any kind will not be imposed compulsorily on the students.
The following are the most significant developments in school education:
- Focus will be on incubating Foundational Literacy and Numeracy.
- According to the policy, the top aim for the education system should be to establish universal literacy and numeracy foundations for all students in primary schools by 2025.
- The new education policy recommends that the topmost priority should be to achieve Foundational Literacy and Numeracy of all students by Grade 3.
The present 10+2 system of education will be replaced by a 5+3+3+4 system as follows:
- Foundation Stage – This stage is further subdivided into two parts, the children in their first three years will be taught in Pre-school/Anganwadi, followed by two years in classes one and two in primary schools. The age group of the children will be between 3-8 years.
A new curriculum for the students will be prepared for these five years of study. The primary focus will be solely on activity-based learning.
- Preparatory Stage – Classes 3-5 will be taught to children aged 8-11 years old at this stage. Students will be introduced to science, mathematics, the arts, and other subjects through experiments during this period.
- Middle Stage – Classes 6-8 will be taught to children aged 11-14 years old at this stage. During this time, the students will be introduced to more theoretical concepts of science, mathematics, arts, humanities, etc. Skill development courses in various categories will start from class 6 onwards.
- Secondary Stage – Classes 9-12 will be taught to children aged 14-18 years old at this stage. This stage is further divided into two phases, the first phase will be class 9-10 and the second phase will consist of class 11-12. During this time, the students will be intended to be introduced to multidisciplinary study, coupled with depth and critical thinking. There will also be the freedom to choose from multiple options of subjects.
Previously, there were exams at the end of each academic year, but now a student just had to take three exams in class 2, class 5, and class 8. Board exams will continue to be held in class 10 and class 12 but will be redesigned like it will be held twice a year in two parts, one will be objective type (MCQ’s) and the other will be descriptive type. Every student will be offered a maximum of two attempts. An evaluation organisation called PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development) will provide the framework for these assessments.
Further, the principal goal of the new National Education Policy is to reduce the number of content a student must acquire in order to make them more “inter-disciplinary” and “multilingual.” Report cards are going to be “holistic” in nature, offering information about the talents/skills learned by the students.
Coding or computer programming will start from class 6 and practical experimental learning will be introduced so that the students are future-ready.
The “Mid-day Meal” program will be expanded to include breakfasts as well. More focus will be given to students especially “Mental Health” which will be monitored by counsellors and social workers.
The new National Education Policy 2020 proposed a new four-year multi-disciplinary bachelor’s degree course in the undergraduate study with an option of multiple exits. This will include professional as well as vocational areas and will be implemented as follows:
- After completion of one (01) year, a Certificate will be issued.
- After completion of two (02) years, a Diploma will be issued.
- After completion of three (03) years, a Bachelor’s degree will be issued.
- After completion of four (04) years, a Multi-disciplinary Bachelor’s degree will be issued. For advanced studies, this will be the preferable option.
The Masters of Philosophy (M. Phil) degree will be phased out to align with the western world’s degree structure.
- A new council called the Higher Education Council of India (HECI) is to be formed to control the curriculum of the upper/higher education system in India. This council’s goal is to extend the gross enrolment ratio of students in the higher educational activity. The HECI will have four (04) principle policies as follows:
- A council called the “National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC)“ would be created to regulate the new guidelines for India’s higher education system, which will include teacher education but exclude medical and legal education.
- To adapt to the new Education System, a “meta-accrediting organisation” dubbed the “National Accreditation Council (NAC)“ will be formed.
- For handling the funding and financing of universities and colleges in India, the National Council for Teacher Education, the All India Council for Technical Education, and the University Grants Commission will all be replaced by a single body known as the “Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC)“.
- A new authority, the “General Education Council (GEC)“ would structure “graduate characteristics,” or the learning outcomes needed of a student. This new council will also be liable for training/framing a National Higher Education Qualification Framework (NHEQF). The National Council for Teacher Education will be replaced by a Professional Standard Setting Body (PSSB), which will be part of the new GEC.
- Other Professional Standard Setting Body‘s (PSSB) will include other professional councils like Veterinary Council of India, Council of Architecture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research and National Council for Vocational Education and Training.
- Additional responsibility will be given to the National Testing Agency (NTA) to conduct entrance examinations for university admissions across the country, JEE Main and NEET as usual will also be conducted by them.
- The new National Education Policy also recommends that higher education institutions, like the IITs, make reforms in terms of learning diversity.
- The new National Education Policy recommends that India’s education system be internationalised. In India, foreign colleges can now establish campuses.
- The new National Education Policy also proposes that both private and public institutions will have set fees.
Teachers will be hired via a process that is both rigorous and transparent. There will be merit-based promotions, as well as a framework for multi-source periodic performance evaluations and paths to become educational administrators or teacher educators. By 2022, the National Council for Teacher Education will have produced a set of common National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST) in collaboration with NCERT, SCERTs, teachers, and expert groups from all levels and regions.
- When it comes to teachers and teacher education, the new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 proposes several policy adjustments.
- By 2030, a four-year Bachelor’s Degree in Education will be the bare minimum requirement for becoming a teacher. Furthermore, the process of hiring teachers will be enhanced and made more transparent.
- A National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education and National Professional Standards for Teachers will be developed by the National Council for Teacher Education by 2021, and by 2022, the National Council for Teacher Education will draft a National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education and a National Professional Standards for Teachers.
- At all levels of education, the new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 aims to ensure that all students are taught by enthusiastic, motivated, highly qualified, professionally educated, and well-equipped teachers.
A variety of new educational institutes, organisations, and concepts have been granted legislative approval to be founded under the new National Education Policy 2020. These includes:
- The Prime Minister of India will supervise India’s new National Education Commission.
- A new Academic Bank of Credit is a digital store of credits gained that may be used to help students restart their education by allowing them to use credits for future education.
- To boost research and innovation, a new National Research Foundation will be established.
- In disadvantaged areas, Special Education Zones will be established to focus on the education of underrepresented populations.
- Gender Inclusion Fund, which helps the country educate female and transgender youngsters.
- A new National Educational Technology Forum, a platform to facilitate the exchange of ideas on the technology used to improve learning.
- The Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation, as well as the National Institute/Institutes for Pali, Persian, and Prakrit, are proposed in the new policy. The National Mentoring Mission, the National Book Promotion Policy, and the National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy are among the other bodies suggested.
- Karnataka is the first state to release an order adopting the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 in early August 2021.
- On August 26, 2021, the state of Madhya Pradesh adopted the new National Educational Policy (NEP) 2020.
- The new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, according to Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath, would be implemented in stages by 2022.
- Telangana’s government administration has agreed to follow the state’s recently announced National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.
- The Chief Minister of Maharashtra,, Uddhav Thackeray, has directed the formation of an expert committee to oversee the implementation of the new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.
- Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Y.S. Jagan Mohan Reddy, has urged Education Department employees to execute the new National Education Policy (NRP) 2020 in its entirety across the state.
- Rajasthan Governor, Kalraj Mishra has stated that the new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 will be implemented over time.
- Himanta Biswa Sarma, the Chief Minister of Assam, has said that the new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 will be introduced in the state beginning April 1, 2022.
To implement this new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 successfully, our team has concluded the followings things.
- To successfully implement this new Education Policy (NEP) at all levels, the government will need to create incentives for stakeholders so that implementation is smooth and standardized.
- Formulating tools in the form of a new framework of legal, policy, regulatory and institutional mechanisms.
- Creating trustworthy information repositories.
- Develop resilience across higher education institutions, regulators, and government agencies to successfully implement the new policy.
- Develop sound management and principles to implement this new Education Policy (NEP) 2020.
- Educational institutes like schools and higher institutions of studies will need to redefine their teaching and learning process for the proper implementation of this new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 to actually witness a path of transformation to achieve an exceptional result and a true transformation of society as a whole.
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