National Education Policy 2020

India’s new National Education Policy (Bharat) 2020 (नई शिक्षा नीति NEP 2020), that was approved by the Indian Union Cabinet on 29 July 2020 outlining the vision of a new education system for 21st century’s new India. The new policy substitutes the previous National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986. This new national education policy aims to develop a complete framework for elementary education through higher education, as well as vocational training, in both rural and urban India, by 2040, resulting in a fundamental reform in India’s educational system.


Background of a National Education Policy

A new National Education Policy for India was initially first felt by the Government of India in 1964 under the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, however, the bill was finally passed by the Parliament in 1968 after discussing and taking suggestions from an Education Commission consisting of seventeen (17) member.

In 1968, then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi proposed the First National Policy on Education (NPE).

In 1986, then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi proposed the Second National Policy on Education (NPE).

In 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi proposed the Third National Education Policy (NEP).

The Indian cabinet has adopted a new National Education Policy to revamp the country’s future educational system. The policies primarily focus on enhancing analysis-based learning in children. The modification of the curriculum and altering the education structure to 5+3+3+4 with 12 years of schooling and 3 years of Preschool or Anganwadi from the current 10+2 to optimise learning among kids depending on their cognitive development are the highlights of the new National Education Policy 2020.


Vision of the new National Education Policy

By delivering high-quality education to all sectors of the population, India’s new National Education Policy aspires to build an education based on an India-centric education that contributes directly to changing our nation sustainably into an equitable and thriving knowledge-based society.


Committee of the new National Education Policy

A new education policy is reviewed by the Government of India every few decades. This one has taken the place of the education policy of 1986, which had been in force for 34 years. This one has replaced the education policy of 1986, which had been in force for 34 years.

The Indian Union’s Ministry of Education convened a twelve-member group to establish a new school, early childhood, teacher and adult education curriculum. The panel was given the task of developing four national curricular frameworks (NCFs).

The main committee consists of the following members:

  1. K Kasturirangan, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)[Former Chief]
  2. Mahesh Chandra Pant, National Institute of Education Planning and Administration of India [Chancellor]
  3. Govind Prasad Sharma, National Book Trust of India [Chairman]
  4. Najma Akhtar, Jamia Millia Islamia University [Vice Chancellor]
  5. T V Kattimani, Central Tribal University of Andhra Pradesh [Vice Chancellor]
  6. Milind Kamble, IIM Jammu [Chairperson]
  7. Michel Danino, IIT Gandhinagar [Guest Professor]
  8. Jagbir Singh, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda [Chancellor]
  9. Manjul Bhargava, American mathematician of Indian origin
  10. M K Sridhar, a trainer and a renowned social activist
  11. Dhir Jhingran, founder-director of Language and Learning Foundation (LLF)
  12. Shankar Maruwada, co-founder and CEO at EkStep Foundation

Besides the above members, it received suggestions from a number of public consultations, gram panchayats (2.5 lakh), blocks (6000), and urban local bodies (676 districts).


Early Stages

New National Education Policy’s (NEP) initial version was introduced in 2019 but it gained rapid appreciation as well as intense criticism. Soon the proposal to make the Hindi language one of the major indispensable languages was rejected. Then the original draft was put into the public domain and suggestions were invited from all sections of people and all stakeholders regarding the policy. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has received millions of suggestions and the draft NEP has been amended as per suggestions accordingly.

The new national education policy committee will establish four (04) NCFs for school education, early childhood care and education, middle childhood education, higher education, teacher education, and adult education, according to its revised terms of reference. This strategy is being implemented in accordance with the focus of the NEP-2020 recommendations for a new India of the future, which is all connected to these four areas for proposing curricular improvements.




According to India’s new National Education Policy 2020, the primary medium of teaching would be native/mother tongue or local language until Class 5, with the option of continuing until Class 8 and beyond. Sanskrit and other foreign languages will also be given priority. The new National Education Policy (NEP 2020) also mentioned that under the new system, all students must learn at least three (03) languages in their school. At least two of the three languages should be our own native language of India. It also states that no language of any kind will not be imposed compulsorily on the students.

School Education

The following are the most significant developments in school education:

The present 10+2 system of education will be replaced by a 5+3+3+4 system as follows:

A new curriculum for the students will be prepared for these five years of study. The primary focus will be solely on activity-based learning.

Previously, there were exams at the end of each academic year, but now a student just had to take three exams in class 2, class 5, and class 8. Board exams will continue to be held in class 10 and class 12 but will be redesigned like it will be held twice a year in two parts, one will be objective type (MCQ’s) and the other will be descriptive type. Every student will be offered a maximum of two attempts. An evaluation organisation called PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development) will provide the framework for these assessments.

Further, the principal goal of the new National Education Policy is to reduce the number of content a student must acquire in order to make them more “inter-disciplinary” and “multilingual.” Report cards are going to be “holistic” in nature, offering information about the talents/skills learned by the students.

Coding or computer programming will start from class 6 and practical experimental learning will be introduced so that the students are future-ready.

The “Mid-day Meal” program will be expanded to include breakfasts as well. More focus will be given to students especially “Mental Health” which will be monitored by counsellors and social workers.


Higher Education

The new National Education Policy 2020 proposed a new four-year multi-disciplinary bachelor’s degree course in the undergraduate study with an option of multiple exits. This will include professional as well as vocational areas and will be implemented as follows:

The Masters of Philosophy (M. Phil) degree will be phased out to align with the western world’s degree structure.


Teacher Education

Teachers will be hired via a process that is both rigorous and transparent. There will be merit-based promotions, as well as a framework for multi-source periodic performance evaluations and paths to become educational administrators or teacher educators. By 2022, the National Council for Teacher Education will have produced a set of common National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST) in collaboration with NCERT, SCERTs, teachers, and expert groups from all levels and regions.

Key Highlights:


Key Changes

A variety of new educational institutes, organisations, and concepts have been granted legislative approval to be founded under the new National Education Policy 2020. These includes:




Our Conclusions

To implement this new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 successfully, our team has concluded the followings things.



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